Appetite-Regulating Hormones Lower After Sucrose Versus Glucose

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Increases in glucose, insulin, GLP-1, PYY less robust with sucrose versus glucose ingestion; increases in glucose, PYY smaller in obese adults

WEDNESDAY, Dec. 30, 2020 (HealthDay News) — Sucrose seems to be less efficient than glucose for signaling postprandial satiation, according to a study published online Dec. 10 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Alexandra G. Yunker, from the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, and colleagues examined how oral sucrose versus glucose impacted appetite-regulating hormones among 69 adults. Participants consumed 300-mL drinks containing 75 g of glucose or sucrose on two occasions. At baseline and 10, 35, and 120 minutes after the drink, blood was sampled for plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and acyl-ghrelin measures.

The researchers observed a less robust rise in glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and PYY with sucrose versus glucose ingestion, but acyl-ghrelin suppression was similar. There were interactions noted between body mass index status and sugar for glucose and PYY; after consuming sucrose versus glucose, obese individuals had smaller increases in glucose and PYY levels. Interactions were seen between insulin sensitivity and sugar for glucose and insulin, and for GLP-1, there was an interaction between sex and sugar, with a smaller increase in GLP-1 for men in response to sucrose versus glucose.

“These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics that may affect the metabolic consequences of consumption of specific nutrients, such as different types of sugar,” the authors write.

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